Annotated Bibliography

Health Care Workforce

Grumbach, K., Munoz, C., Coffman, J., Rosenoff, E., Gandara, P., & Sepulveda, E. (2003). Strategies for improving the diversity of the health professions. Woodland Hills, CA: The California Endowment.

Extract: This report, Strategies for Improving the Diversity of the Health Professions, attempts to answer these questions. Through review of the research literature and assessment of the variety of programs targeting URM participation in the health professions, we attempted to evaluate comprehensively current programs and strategies designed to increase the number of URMs entering the health professions. The report reaches several overarching conclusions.


Hall, F. M., Schwartz, A. L., Posner, G., Jaffe, E. A., Vaghjimal, A., & Mullan, F. (2000). The case for more U.S. medical students. New England Journal of Medicine, 343(3), 213-217.

Abstract: The US should begin training more medical students. The number of openings in hospitals for interns is 30% higher than the number of medical students who graduate each year. Many hospitals can only fill this need by hiring graduates of foreign medical schools. At the same time, US medical schools routinely reject more qualified applicants than they accept. Hiring foreign graduates to work in the US also draws talent away from other countries. If medical schools begin accepting more students, they must try to recruit minority students, and those willing to practice in under-served areas.


Healthcare Workforce Diversity Advisory Council. (2008). Diversifying California’s healthcare workforce, an opportunity to address California’s health workforce shortages. Sacramento, CA: Author. Retrieved June 9, 2009 from

Extract: In 2007, the Administration, with the assistance of a grant from The California Wellness Foundation, convened the Healthcare Workforce Diversity Advisory Council (Council) housed within the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (Office) and chaired by the Latino Coalition for a Healthy California (LCHC). Comprised of health policy advocates, health professions pipeline programs, workforce investment, health student and professional associations, research, labor and industry, the Council was charged with developing recommendations to address California’s health professional shortages, especially among underrepresented groups. Public input from hundreds of key stakeholders gathered through regional hearings guided the Council in identifying and prioritizing recommendations. The Council focused the development of its report “Diversifying California’s Health Workforce: an Opportunity to Address Health Workforce Shortages” on two important issues that impact the delivery of health services to Californians.


National Institute of General Medical Sciences. (2007). Modeling scientific workforce diversity. Bethesda, MD: Author.

Extract: As part of its efforts to promote diversity in the biomedical workforce, NIGMS convened a group of scientists to evaluate the feasibility of creating a computer model of the scientific workforce as a guide for policy makers. A review of research findings on the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in science highlighted both lingering patterns of underrepresentation and change over time, and the group discussed how policy interventions and other social factors can impact the degree of disparity. They concluded that current limitations in the state of knowledge about forces influencing science career decisions constrain efforts to build a comprehensive model of the factors shaping the scientific workforce. In the near term, it would be most useful to construct focused models to produce insight into career dynamics, help refine research questions, and encourage the collection of relevant data.


Perez, T. E. (2006). Enhancing access to health care and eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health status: A compelling case for health professions schools to implement race-conscious admissions policies. Journal of Health Care Law and Policy, 9(1), 77-104.

Summary: This article explores the challenges health care systems face as America experiences a demographic is becoming more diverse. Part One outlines the legal evolution of the diversity rationale. Part Two discusses the contours of an additional legal theory to justify race-conscious admissions and recruitment practices in the health profession context. Perez concludes by providing a roadmap for schools interested in purchasing affirmative action insurance policies, and legal advocates seeking to identify new theories that support race-conscious admissions and recruitment practices.


Smedley, B. D., Butler, A. S., & Bristow, L. R. (Eds.). (2004). In the nation's compelling interest: Ensuring diversity in the health-care workforce. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Extract: This report examines institutional and policy-level strategies to increase diversity among health professionals. Addressed in the report are an assessment and description of the potential benefits of greater diversity among health professionals, as well as strategies that may increase diversity in five areas: admissions policies and practices of health professions education institutions; public sources of financial support for health professions training; standards of health professions accreditation organizations pertaining to diversity; the "institutional climate" for diversity at health professions education institutions; and the relationship between Community Benefit principles and diversity.


Sullivan Commission. (2004). Missing persons: Minorities in the health professions. Washington, D.C.: Sullivan Commission.

Extract: The Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Healthcare Workforce is an outgrowth of a grant from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation to Duke University School of Medicine. The Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Healthcare Workforce finds that African-Americans, Hispanics, American Indians, and certain segments of the nation’s Asian/Pacific Islander population are not present in significant numbers—they are missing. While some outstanding physicians, dentists, and nurses are minorities, access to a health professions career remains largely separate and unequal. This report examines the root causes of this challenge and provides detailed recommendations on how to increase the representation of minorities in the nation’s medical, dental and nursing workforce.