Annotated Bibliography

Workforce and Pipeline

American Council on Education. (2006). Minorities in higher education: Twenty-second annual status report: 2006. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education.

From the Publisher: Although students of color have made significant gains in college enrollment, African-American and Hispanic students still lag behind their white peers in the rate at which they enroll in college. This most recent edition of Minorities in Higher Education features more than 50 charts, tables, and graphs documenting patterns in high school completion, college participation, college enrollment, and the awarding of degrees by race/ethnicity, as well as employment trends in higher education.


BEST: Building Engineering and Science Talent. (2004). A bridge for all: Higher education design principles to broaden participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. San Diego, CA: BEST: Building Engineering and Science Talent.

Summary: This report examines the educational milestones that America’s colleges and universities have attained, particularly in the technical fields. A set of design principles that are essential to building the nation’s technical talent pool are presented, and strategies for adapting these design principles are offered. BEST articulates a national leadership agenda that expands beyond higher education to include federal and state entities.


BEST: Building Engineering and Science Talent. (2004). The talent imperative: Diversifying America's science and engineering workforce. San Diego, CA: BEST: Building Engineering and Science Talent.

Summary: This report includes educational and occupational data, presents the barriers to progress that remain despite educational reforms, and identifies four “design principles” for effective workplace practices. It ends with a series of recommendations on how to implement a coordinated action plan for transformational change that fully engages employers.


BEST: Building Engineering and Science Talent. (2005). The quiet crisis: Falling short in producing American scientific and technical talent. San Diego, CA: BEST: Building Engineering and Science Talent.

Summary: This report asserts that the US is experiencing a “quiet crisis” due to the unequal supply and demand of technically skilled workers. BEST proposes an action framework that names priorities for government, industry and non-profit groups to quell the quiet crisis and keep America at the forefront of scientific and technical innovations. Many of these priorities and action steps needed to develop a national strategy will emerge from an assessment by BEST of what is and is not working.


Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering and Technology Development. (2000). Land of plenty: Diversity as America's competitive edge in science, engineering and technology. Washington, D.C.

Extract: In compiling this report, the Commission conducted a comprehensive review of existing education and workforce data, past reports, and current trends, and commissioned new papers where there were gaps in the literature. Testimony was presented during public hearings by experts in the SET policy arena, by educators at all levels, corporate executives, government officials, and nonprofit sector leaders. The outcome of the Commission’s efforts is a carefully selected set of action-oriented recommendations designed to create systemic change that is national in scope and structured for immediate implementation.



Hersh, R., & Merrow, J. (Eds.). (2005). Declining by degrees: Higher education at risk. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Extract: "Declining by Degrees" takes viewers to college campuses around the country to hear firsthand from students, teachers and administrators who provide candid insights of the national problems and challenges facing higher education in America. It's a topic too important to ignore. As Richard Hersh, former president of Trinity College and Hobart and William Smith College says, "Higher education is about the future. And it is about the way in which we travel to the future in terms of being prepared, or it's the way in which we fail the future."


Martin, C., & Pearson, Jar, W. (2005). Pathways to STEM careers: Preparing the STEM workforce of the 21st century. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

Extract: This report summarizes discussions and recommendations resulting from a workshop convened at the National Science Foundation to examine issues surrounding the development of a diverse and well-prepared science and engineering workforce for the 21st century. The continuing lack of full and diverse participation of all citizens in the STEM workforce threatens the economic strength, national security, and well-being of US citizens. The under-representation of certain groups also raises serious issues of social justice and lack of opportunity in a society that professes to be egalitarian and democratic. As groups under-represented in the STEM workforce become an increasingly larger part of the US population, the vitality of the STEM workforce may further decline unless action is taken to broaden participation of all parts of our society.


National Science Foundation. (2004). Broadening participation in America's science and engineering workforce. Washington, D.C.: Committee on Equal Opportunities in Science and Engineering.

Extract: This report satisfies the requirements—pertinent to CEOSE—of the NSF Reauthorization Act of 2002 (H.R. 4664) by summarizing the first 25 years (1980-2004) of CEOSE, describing NSF policies and programs related to broadening participation in STEM, and analyzing trends in participation during the second half of this period. According to the report, compared with 1980, persons from underrepresented groups are now submitting a modestly greater proportion of proposals to NSF, appear to be participating in modestly greater numbers and proportions as NSF reviewers, and have become an increased fraction of the professional staff at NSF. Since its creation, CEOSE consistently reiterated the inadequate access of persons from underrepresented groups to education and employment opportunities in STEM; the need for research to understand and improve attraction, retention, persistence, and attachment; and the need for data sufficiently detailed to disaggregate by gender, race, ethnicity, and disability status. CEOSE’s recommendations focus on removing barriers, advancing research to expand the relevant knowledge base, and improving data collection and quality. Interaction and responsiveness between CEOSE and NSF's leadership was strong, and CEOSE recommendations appear to have contributed to several changes in NSF's diversity-related policies and programs.


Salzman, H., & Lowell, B. (2007). Into the eye of the storm: Assessing the evidence on science and engineering education, quality, and workforce demand. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute.

Abstract: Recent policy reports claim the US is falling behind other nations in science and math education and graduating insufficient numbers of scientists and engineers. Review of the evidence and analysis of actual graduation rates and workforce needs does not find support for these claims. US student performance rankings are comparable to other leading nations, and colleges graduate far more scientists and engineers than are hired each year. The evidence suggests targeted education improvements are needed for the lowest performers and demand-side factors may be insufficient to attract qualified college graduates.